Types of Reverse Mortgages
There are three types of reverse mortgages:
- single-purpose reverse mortgages, offered by some state and local government agencies and nonprofit organizations
- federally-insured reverse mortgages, known as Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (HECMs) and backed by the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
- proprietary reverse mortgages, private loans that are backed by the companies that develop them
Single-purpose reverse mortgages are the least expensive option. They are not available everywhere and can be used for only one purpose, which is specified by the government or nonprofit lender. For example, the lender might say the loan may be used only to pay for home repairs, improvements, or property taxes. Most homeowners with low or moderate income can qualify for these loans.
HECMs and proprietary reverse mortgages may be more expensive than traditional home loans, and the upfront costs can be high. That’s important to consider, especially if you plan to stay in your home for just a short time or borrow a small amount. HECM loans are widely available, have no income or medical requirements, and can be used for any purpose.
Before applying for a HECM, you must meet with a counselor from an independent government-approved housing counseling agency. Some lenders offering proprietary reverse mortgages also require counseling. The counselor is required to explain the loan’s costs and financial implications, and possible alternatives to a HECM, like government and nonprofit programs or a single-purpose or proprietary reverse mortgage. The counselor also should be able to help you compare the costs of different types of reverse mortgages and tell you how different payment options, fees, and other costs affect the total cost of the loan over time. To find a counselor, visitwww.hud.gov/offices/hsg/sfh/hecm/hecmlist.cfm or call 1-800-569-4287. Most counseling agencies charge around $125 for their services. The fee can be paid from the loan proceeds, but you cannot be turned away if you can’t afford the fee.
How much you can borrow with a HECM or proprietary reverse mortgage depends on several factors, including your age, the type of reverse mortgage you select, the appraised value of your home, and current interest rates. In general, the older you are, the more equity you have in your home, and the less you owe on it, the more money you can get.
The HECM lets you choose among several payment options. You can select:
- a “term” option – fixed monthly cash advances for a specific time.
- a “tenure” option – fixed monthly cash advances for as long as you live in your home.
- a line of credit that lets you draw down the loan proceeds at any time in amounts you choose until you have used up the line of credit.
- a combination of monthly payments and a line of credit.
You can change your payment option any time for about $20.